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Hydrogen Gas Flow Cell for In Situ/Operando X-Ray Spectroscopic Studies


Characterization Tools


X-ray spectroscopy techniques include:

  • XAS and XES: probing conduction band and valence band, respectively (XAS: TEY detection – surface sensitive, TFY detection – bulk sensitive)
  • RIXS: probing collective excitations (d-d and charge transfer excitations)
  • Experimental environments: UHV (XAS & RIXS) and in-situ/operando (XAS) characterization

The hydrogen gas flow cell has been built for in-situ/operando X-ray spectroscopic studies of solid-state hydrogen storage materials under a hydrogen pressure up to 1-5 bar and temperature up to 300 °C condition to monitor the electronic structure changes during the hydrogen adsorption and desorption processes. The equipment has been built and commissioned on BL7.3.1 (high-pressure XAS endstation) and BL8.0.1.4 (Wet-RIXS endstation) at the ALS. XAS experiments has been performed on the hydrogen storage materials of Mg NPs with graphene capping layer (samples made in Jeff Uban's group), NaAlH4 and Ti doped NaAlH4 (samples made in Vitalie Stavila group), Ni2(m-dobdc) under H2-pressure up to 5 bar (samples made in Jeff Long group), and more samples from HyMARC PIs and seedling project PIs. The equipment would allow HyMARC's collaborators and partners to use at the various synchrotron facilities, such as the ALS, SSRL, NSLS-II and APS and to obtain a comprehensive understanding of the physical/chemical phenomena of hydrogen storage materials and fuel cells behind in electronic structure by using in-situ x-ray spectroscopies1-2.


On line and available for use in collaboration with HyMARC.


Labeled equipment in a laboratory, a diagram of their connections, and a closeup of a single instrument with component labels.

Fig. 1. The BL8.0.1.4 Hydrogen gas flow cell and experimental system


  1. Y. Liu, Pe. Glans, C. Chuang, M. Kapilashrami, J. Guo,"Perspectives of in situ/operando resonant inelastic X-ray scattering in catalytic energy materials science," J. Electr. Spectr. Rel. Phenom. 200 (2015) 282.
  2. Y. Liu, S. Jeong, J. L. White, X. Feng, E. S. Cho, V. Stavila, M. D. Allendorf, J. J. Urban, and J. Guo,"In-situ/operando X-ray characterization of metal hydrides," ChemPhysChem 20 (2019) 1261.